南京大学 “百位名师邀约计划” 暑期课程 Processes of the Critical Zone ( 地球关键带过程 )

发布者:庞宝鑫发布时间:2018-07-04浏览次数:432

南京大学 “百位名师邀约计划” 暑期课程   

Processes of the Critical Zone ( 地球关键带过程  )  



授课老师Joseph A. Mason教授(美国威斯康星大学地理系系主任)

中方授课团队(含野外实习):鹿化煜教授、王晓勇副教授、徐志伟副研究员

授课时间201876日至30

授课对象:本科生(以大三、大二为主,含基地班和大地学实验班)

室内讲课地点:仙2 -102    



课程简介

随着全球变化科学以及地球系统科学的发展,过去传统的、单一学科已经不能满足对地球系统认知的需求,也无法解决诸如全球变化、碳循环、可持续发展等重要的资源环境问题。最近十年,地球关键带成为了地球系统科学的研究前沿和跨学科关注的热点。地球关键带是指地表各个圈层相互作用的一个带,包括了地表岩石—土壤—生物—水—大气,并涉及到人为的活动。这一相互作用带,是地球表层系统最重要的组成部分。地球关键带本身是一个复杂的系统,涉及很多学科,包括地理学、水文学、生态学、土壤学、地球化学、大气科学等;关注的过程也是多尺度的,从元素分子尺度(比如碳的循环、氮的循环)到剖面尺度、流域尺度、区域和全球尺度。本课程指导学生在系统的角度上,通过多学科视角了解地球关键带,综合认知不同时空尺度的关键带过程、物质和能量的交换和传输、不同圈层的相互影响和反馈以及它们如何影响生命的过程等。  



授课内容

Topics:

What is the critical zone (CZ)? Structure/architecture of the CZ, from soil particles and aggregates to soil profile and regolith, to 3D architecture of the CZ, also discussing vegetation structure. Two or three examples as case studies.

CZ as a system. Summary of major flows of mass and energy. Concept of conservation of mass to calculated fluxes in CZ system.

 Hydrology of the CZ. Selected topics, focused on infiltration and evapotranspiration as affected by soil and vegetation properties, using two or three examples from contrasting humid and semi-arid environments.

 Carbon cycle in the CZ: 1. Organic carbon addition and decomposition in soils, as related to plant community and climate. 2. CO2 in soils, affect on pH and formation of soil carbonates. Example of soil organic carbon model, brief discussion of pedogenic carbonates. Concept of C residence time in organic matter and carbonates. C in buried soils.

 Weathering in the CZ. Physical weathering (examples). Weathering of silicate minerals, as influenced by soil hydrology and pH. Clay mineral formation and mobility of clay particles (detail depending on time available).

 Concepts of soil production and soil residence time. Competition between soil forming processes (OC accumulation, weathering, etc.) and either erosion or deposition. Case studies: 1) Rock  soil  to stream sediment in bedrock terrain, 2) Soil processes competing with accumulation or erosion of loess

 Humans and the CZ. Impact of agriculture and other human activity on CZ processes. CZ services: Role of CZ in carbon sequestration, agricultural productivity, groundwater recharge, downstream effects of sediment and nutrients, biodiversity.

 Summing up with examples of CZ in different environments (tectonically active mountains, low relief landscape in stable continental setting, semiarid landscape with sand and loess).



Background knowledge important for this course:

 Basic concepts from physics and chemistry

 Basic concepts of hydrology, especially infiltration, runoff, soil moisture storage, evapotranspiration, groundwater recharge.

 Some knowledge of geology, especially basic rock and mineral types.

 Some knowledge of geomorphology, especially processes of soil erosion and mass wasting



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